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Початок розділу > Іноземні мови

Особливості поетичного перекладу з англійської мови на українську на прикладі поезій американських та англійських поетів-класиків

Наукова робота на двох мовах (українська і англійська) вартість обох - 30 у.о. Окремо на одній мові - 20 у.о. На англійській мові - 44 стор. На українській мові - 30 стор. Додатки - 25 стор.

ВСТУП

РОЗДІЛ 1. Функціонально-стилістичні особливості поетичного жанру
РОЗДІЛ 2. Характерні особливості поетичного перекладу
2.1. Поетичний переклад і його місце серед інших видів перекладу
2.2. Основні положення теорії поетичного перекладу
2.3 Етапи розвитку поетичного перекладу
РОЗДІЛ 3. Художній аналіз та переклади поезій англійських та американських класиків
3.1. Літературні переклади Сонета 66 В.Шекспіра як взірець перекладацької діяльності
3.2. Аналіз художніх образів та ідей оригіналу та перекладів поезії Р.Кіплінга “If”
3.3. Переклади інтимної лірики Р.Бернса
3.4. Передача філософського змісту поезій Е.Дікінсон
3.5. Переклад пейзажної лірики Р.Фроста
ВИСНОВКИ
СПИСОК ВИКОРИСТАНИХ ДЖЕРЕЛ
ДОДАТКИ

INTRODUCTION
PART 1. PECULIARITIES OF POETIC GENRE. CHARACTERISTICS OF POETRY AS OPPOSED TO PROSE
PART 2. THE PLACE OF POETIC TRANSLATION AMONG DIFFERENT KINDS OF TRANSLATION
2.1. Characteristic features of poetic translation.
2.2. Stages of development of poetic translation. The contribution of Ukrainian translators into the theory of poetic translation
PART 3. WORKS OF ENGLISH AND AMERICAN POETRY, THEIR ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATIONS
3.1. Literary translations of Shakespeare’s sonnets as a masterpiece of translation
3.2. Analysis of leading ideas of Rudyard Kipling’s poem “If” and variants of their translation
3.3. Romantic lyrics by R. Burns and its translation
3.4. Conveying philosophic content of Emily Dickinson’s verses
3.5. Translation of Robert Frost’s landscape lyrics
CONCLUSIONS
LIST OF REFERENCE MATERIALS
APPENDICES
Робота присвячена дослідженню засобів досягнення адекватності поетичного перекладу. Здійснено аналіз особливостей поетичного перекладу та його місця серед інших видів перекладу. Об’єктом дослідження слугували відібрані твори англійських та американських поетів-класиків, зокрема В.Шекспіра, Р.Кіплінга, Р.Бернса, Е.Дікінсон та Р.Фроста. Визначені характеристики звукової побудови та ритмічного малюнку кожного вірша, закономірності зв’язку між ритмом, римами та змістом і їх вплив на художні та стилістичні засоби розкриття основних образів, ідей та думок твору. Подано детальний аналіз усіх вживаних художніх засобів (епітетів, порівнянь, метафор, архаїзмів, персоніфікацій), звукових повторів (алітерацій, асонансів) та віршових розмірів (ямбів, хореїв, амфібахіїв, анапестів). В кожному конкретному випадку встановлені закономірності підбору художніх засобів та віршового розміру перекладачем і дослідником відповідно тексту оригіналу. Новизною дослідження можна також вважати запропоновані власні переклади відібраного віршового матеріалу з метою адекватного відображення образів та атмосфери творів-оригіналів, що підтверджує висновок про велику літературно-естетичну цінність українського поетичного перекладу. Результати узагальнення та творчої інтерпретації дослідженого матеріалу можуть бути корисними при вивченні питань теорії і практики перекладу, а також слугують популяризації поезій та поетичного перекладу серед українських читачів як ідеали краси та витонченості думки.

CONCLUSIONS

The conducted analysis of peculiarities of poetic translation, the study of actual and factual material viewed diachronically allowed us to make the following conclusions:
1. Poetic translation as a phenomenon is treated differently by different scholars. However obvious significant difference of poetic translation is, there is no single definition of this type of translation: some scholars treat it as a kind of “literary artistic and literary proper translation” Ilko Korunets [ ],leaving behind all the variety of ways of achieving adequate poetic translation; others (V. Komissarov and A. Koralova [ ]) distinguish between literary and informative translation, again leaving behind the art of poetic translation; still others (V. N. Krupnov [ ;21]) deny separating poetic translation into a special kind of translation, while M. O. Olikova [ ] accentuated pragmatic aspects of translation and thus the need of distinguishing specific features of poetic translation become obvious. T. A. Kazakova [ ;8] seems to cover the problems of definition of poetic translation most extensively. So, in our research we kept to her definition of the term “poetic translation”.
2. Translation techniques used to deal with literary works necessarily include reason and intuition, rational and emotional appreciation of the comparative qualities of the original text and its reconstruction in the TL.
3. A translator must understand the general purport when he approaches his task. He is not expected to translate word by word but, bearing in mind the global content of a poem, to transpose it into the form of another language.
4. While performing poetic translation it becomes obvious that it is impossible to reproduce merit of the ST, preserving rhythm, metric pattern at the same time. Something is always omitted. It means that we can rarely find perfect translations of poetry. 5. Literary poetic translation represents the highest level of a translator’s activity. Any type of matter skillfully turned in TL, especially by a regular master of pen may acquire faithfulness and the literary standard equal to that of the SL.
6. The translator of literary works should achieve a close relationship between the theory and practice of translation. For one thing, the choice of the principles of translation may not be purely intuitive because the translator necessarily takes into account such matters as the aim of the translation, the temporal and geographic gap between the creation of the ST and possible readers of the translation, the kind of reader the TT is intended for, etc. Each aspect provides a problem for consideration and solution in the course of translating.
7. One of the most difficult problems is the choice of the method of translation to achieve its faithfulness and the same pragmatic influence on the reader as that of the ST. The main of these principles may be defined as follows:
-To maintain in the TL version all the structural peculiarities of the matter under translation.
-To hold strictly to the author’s conception and render faithfully the content of the ST.
-To maintain in the version of the TL the main peculiarities of the syntactic organization and stylistic means of expression of the ST.
-To maintain in the version of the TL the fidelity in the means and ways of the author’s depicting the artistic images and expressiveness pertained to the SL.
-To avoid deliberate omissions and any other forms of free interpretation unless required of the ST.
-To restrain in the process of translation of a text from any deliberate shortening or enlargement of it, as well as of any embellishment of its stylistic or artistic qualities in the TT.
-To maintain as fully as possible in the TL variant the ease of expression pertaining to the ST.
-To maintain in the TT the pragmatic intention of the author and his force of influence on the reader.
In order to accomplish a faithful translation one should fulfill the above-mentioned requirements. Translating poetry is a rather creative activity, which has no patterns. But a special pre-translating activity will help penetrate into peculiarities of form, content and imagery of a poem and thus, will lead to adequate translation (reading about the author as much as possible; studying the meanings of the words and their symbolic value, the rhythm, meter, rhyme of the poem, the stylistic devices used to create the imagery of the poem; identifying the strong positions, key words of the text and try to use their synonyms or direct meanings when translating that specific text organization, which provides aesthetic effect on significant meanings in such strong positions as the title, the beginning and the end of the line or stanza, the words which rhyme, the tropes, lexical repetitions). The researcher’s own attempts of translating the selected verses were aimed at popularization among English learners, especially modern youth, the idea of studying, both in the original and the translation, poetry as an ideal of beauty, eloquence and refinement of thought.
A translator must understand the general purport when he approaches his task. He is not expected to translate word by word but, bearing in mind the global content of a poem, to transpose it into the form of another language. But even in this case we keep being confronted with several literary-critical interpretations of a piece of poetry; the translator then chooses the one that is germane to him. For example, some translators of Hamlet’s soliloquy confine its content to the religious fear of suicide.
There is no doubt that rhythm is one of the most important aspects of poetry. It has often been stated that the rhythmical structure of a poem is retained by the reader as a basic scheme, which forms the background of listening to poetry. The rhythmical organization of verse is inseparable from its “poetic content”. It is therefore absolutely necessary for a translator to convey the rhythmical structure of the original, with all its finest shades and distinctions, into the TL.

There can be no argument that the translator of literary works should achieve a close relationship between the theory and practice of translation. For one thing, the choice of the principles of translation may not be purely intuitive because the translator necessarily takes into account such matters as the aim of the translation, the temporal and geographic gap between the creation of the ST (source text) and possible readers of the translation, the kind of reader the TT (target text) is intended for, etc. Each aspect provides a problem for consideration and solution in the course of translating.
Translator’s tasks are quite different from those of the author. Firstly, the author creates a new writing, using his native language, own knowledge and experience; the translator reproduces a finished writing. Secondly, the author is not bounded in his creative activity, which is limited for the translator. Besides, the author depicts events of his time more frequently; the translator doesn’t always translate literary works that belong to the epoch he lives in. He expresses author’s thoughts, not his own. Translator must clearly estimate his tasks in order not to substitute faithful translation for metaphrase, paraphrase, adaptation, retelling, interpretation or imitation, etc. because these processes of reproducing foreign information are not equal to faithful translation. John Draiden, famous English translator and critic, distinguished metaphrase - word for word, interlinear translation, paraphrase- translation which enlightens the text, or translation with latitude, imitation (translator creates his own piece of art which is based on the original. Such translation doesn’t preserve exact content of the ST). Imitations are especially distinctive in poetic translation. Applying to this principle of translation the translator doesn’t strive for expression of the original, but for self- expression. Adaptation is a version of translation. Retelling or interpretation can substitute sometimes faithful translation.

Thus, one of the eternal problems is the choice of the method of translation. While researching the types and principles of translation, there is another question: whether faithful, or better to say exact translation exists?

We consider it means that translator has to be experienced in cultures of the languages he knows and works at. There is no denying the fact that adequacy in translation can be achieved only under condition of sufficient cultural experience of the translator: realization and comprehension of the peculiarities of socio-cultural communication, historical specification, metacognitive strategies of cultural units of the communicative sphere. For example, Ukrainian language has such ethnoInformative misunderstandings that arise in the process of the communication can be filled only with the help of social- cultural experience of the translator. As much knowledge he has of social, historical and cultural peculiarities of other community, so he has higher level of filling in these misunderstanding. When dealing with poetic translation it becomes obvious that it is impossible to reproduce merit of the ST, preserving rhythm, metric pattern at the same time. Something is always omitted. It means that we can rarely find perfect translations of poetry.
Literary translating represents the highest level of a translator’s activity. Any type of matter skillfully turned in TL, especially by a regular master of pen may acquire faithfulness and the literary standard equal to that of the SL. The term "literary translation” is somewhat vague. It is usually opposed to the term “informative or documentary translation” and describes translation as aiming predominantly at the TL rules rather than the SL ones. V. Komissarov and A.Koralova [ ] distinguish between literary and informative translation. Literary translation deals with literary texts, i.e. works of fiction, poetry or drama whose main function is to produce an emotional or aesthetic impression upon the reader. Their communicative value depends on their artistic quality and the translator’s primarily task is to reproduce this quality in translation.
Informative translation is rendering into the TL non-literary texts, the main purpose of which is to convey a certain amount of ideas, to inform the reader.
Depending on the type of the matter under translation, this method of performance may be either literary proper or literary artistic.
Literary artistic translation presents a faithful conveying of content and work of the artistic merits only of a fiction/belles-lettres passage or work. The latter may be either of a prose or a poetic genre (verse).
Literary proper translation is performed on any other than fiction/belles-lettres works. These may include scientific or technical matter, additional matter, business correspondence, the language of documents, epistolary texts, etc. In short, any printed or recorded matter devoid of artistic merits (epithets, metaphors, etc.). But whether literary proper or literary artistic, this translation provides an equivalent rendering not only of complete content but also of the stylistic peculiarities of the work and its artistic merits, beauty, as in belles-lettres style texts.Literary translation is definitely a necessary and important instrument for different cultural traditions to communicate and should apply to translating social and political writing or fiction, while the term “poetic translation” is a variety of literary translation is associated with translating poetry and presupposes some inevitable liberties in the choice of the TL substitutes for the SL elements. However, we should differentiate between the ideas and principles of literary and poetic methods of translation.
Literary translation is definitely a necessary and important instrument for different cultural traditions to communicate and should apply to translating social and political writing or fiction, while the term “poetic translation” is a variety of literary translation is associated with translating poetry and presupposes some inevitable liberties in the choice of the TL substitutes for the SL elements. However, we should differentiate between the ideas and principles of literary and poetic methods of translation.
Poetic translation involves an unpredictable area of transformations in the probable projection of the SL onto the TL through the perception of the translator. Multiple probabilities are a particular feature of poetic translation, while another important feature is irreversibility. From this point of view, poetic translation is what is sometimes described as “ artistic translation”.
There is always some debatable polarity in any poetic translation. On the one hand, it has to preserve the authenticity of the original, that is to say its foreignness, while in other part; it must be meaningful to the target culture in both form and idiom and thus acquire naturalness. This polarity has been considered in many works on translation. One of the most famous registers of the dual principles of translation was produced by Theodore Savory who fixed a number of oppositions in the list of requirements for a correct translation.
The necessity of keeping both targets (foreignness and naturalness) in view at the same time was firmly indicated by Czech linguist Jirchi Levy. He considered that the most important quality of translation is “ the translation of full value”. Ultimately, the task might seem impossible due to the nature of the conflict between two cultures and languages, and to the subjective character of the translating instrument. From this point of view, ant translation is inevitably a failure. Yet there are always victories and achievements in seeking a way to transform a foreign picture of the world into something both new and comprehensive to the target culture. In this respect, the ultimate task of translation is achievable, to a certain extent. This needle-narrow pass between the impossible and the achievable represents the core of poetic translation. We may consider it from the point of view of functions rather than constants. The most important function of poetic translation is that of intercultural communication.
Formulated in basic terms, the intercultural task of poetic translation may be expressed as follows: to translate a literary work from a language to another language means to lose as little as possible of its original cultural authenticity while preserving as much as possible of its intercultural value. To put it in other words, the aim is to reconstruct the imagery of the ST as a system into the target culture by means of the TL and literary traditions. New readers should make efforts to appreciate a foreign system of imagery but the difficulty must not dominate the translated text lest it should become dull and alien to the target culture – so that the text in the TL should make sense and bring aesthetic and emotional pleasure to the target reader.
Presumably, translation techniques used to deal with literary works necessarily include reason and intuition, rational and emotional appreciation of the comparative qualities of the original text and its reconstruction in the TL.
The translator may play different games with such an intersemiotic complex. Sometimes he becomes a keen rival to the author, carried away by the idea of creating a text in the TL equal in its imaginative power to the ST, though different in linguistic, literary and cultural qualities. The main principle of such translation is the reconstruction of the source system of imagery as observed by the translator rather than its precise details in the TL. This way is creative as well as misleading and applicable only to situations where the target literature (and culture at large) has not yet assimilated the basic feature of the basic one. There is an everlasting discussion of how to classify such a principle of translating, imitation or adaptation.
The results of all these different author’s approaches to translation show that translations close to or especially far from the ST are usually failures. There should be some golden mean that will provide balance in a translator’s endeavours. What suits best to the development of the literary process and interliterary communication may be considered such a measurement. If translation functions well at a certain time in a certain place, it is true and well made. As soon as it ceases to function fruitfully in any respect, it will inevitably be replaced by some other version. From this simplistic point of view, there is no looking for identity in translation but for this or that degree of similarity required by the joint preferences of a national language, literature, culture and mentality.
Due to the social requirements and on the ground of the long practice and the rich experience of the preceding and present generations of belles-lettres translators, there were elaborated some basic principles of artistic translation. The main of these principles, which may equally be applied when translating any other type of written matter (and poetic translation in particular), may be defined as follows:

1. To maintain in the TL version all the structural peculiarities of the matter under translation.
2. To hold strictly to the author’s conception and render faithfully the content of the ST.
3. To maintain in the version of the TL the main peculiarities of the syntactic organization and stylistic means of expression of the ST.
4. To maintain in the version of the TL the fidelity in the means and ways of the author’s depicting the artistic images and expressiveness pertained to the SL.
5. To avoid deliberate omissions and any other forms of free interpretation unless required of the ST.
6. To restrain in the process of translation of a text from any deliberate shortening or enlargement of it, as well as of any embellishment of its stylistic or artistic qualities in the TT.
7. To maintain as fully as possible in the TL variant the ease of expression pertaining to the ST.
8. To maintain in the TT the pragmatic intention of the author and his force of influence on the reader.
In order to accomplish a faithful translation one should fulfill the above-mentioned requirements. Translating poetry is a rather creative activity, which has no patterns. But a special pre-translating activity will help penetrate into peculiarities of form, content and imagery of a poem and thus, will lead to adequate translation. Here is the list of such tasks, which can be applied to any poetic matter:
1. Read about the author as much as possible. Important events that occurred in his or her life could become an incitement to write this or that poem. Thus knowledge of author’s biography is a key to understand the main idea of poetic matter. As the translator should penetrate into the general purport when he approaches his task.
2. Read the poem attentively and study the meanings of the words and their symbolic value.
3. Study the rhythm, meter, rhyme of the poem. 4. Study the stylistic devices used to create the imagery of the poem.
Identify the strong positions, key words of the text and try to use their synonyms or direct meanings when translating. (Adequacy of translation can be achieved by reproduction of semantically important or “strong” positions of the text. Strong position is a specific text organization, which provides aesthetic effect on significant meanings. Here is the list of such strong positions: the title, the beginning and the end of the line or stanza, the words which rhyme, the tropes, lexical repetitions.)
6. Think about possible transformations.
7. Try to penetrate into the moods of the poem.
8. Translate a poem applying interlinear method of translation.
9. Reconstruct the system of stylistic devices according to the principles of Ukrainian school of translation.
10. Arrange a pattern of rhymes for the TT.
11. Fill in the lines with fitting words within the rhyming frame.

Pragmatic arrangement of the author is conveyed successfully in both translations. Evidence Rivalry in translation is a proof of literature’s development and development of poetic translation. In our opinion, in order to analyze a new translation one should take into consideration previous translations, elucidate their peculiarities and expedience. The notion should be made that many translations that were made earlier are not ousted by new ones. On the contrary, they are actively read at the same level as modern translations.

Відгук на наукову роботу Шепетівського навчально-виховного комплексу №1 “Особливості поетичного перекладу з англійської мови на українську на прикладі поезій американських та англійських поетів-класиків”

Робота присвячена актуальній темі - дослідженню засобів досягнення адекватності поетичного перекладу на матеріалі творів англійських та американських класиків, зокрема В. Шекспіра, Р. Кіплінга, Р. Бернса, Е. Дікінсон, Р.Фроста.
В результаті наукового дослідження на основі опрацювання оригінального літературного та критичного матеріалу, особистої творчості, здійснений комплексний підхід до аналізу особливостей стилю кожного поета та адекватності їх перекладів і запропоновано власний варіант. У своєму дослідженні Костюк О. приділила значну увагу звуковій побудові та ритмічному малюнку віршів, підбору рим автором та перекладачем, зв’язку між ритмом, римами та змістом і їх впливу на художні та стилістичні засоби розкриття основних образів, ідей та думок твору. У роботі дається глибокий та детальний аналіз усіх вживаних художніх засобів (епітетів, порівнянь, метафор, архаїзмів, персоніфікацій), звукових повторів (алітерацій, асонансів) та віршових розмірів (ямбів, хореїв, амфібахіїв, анапестів). В кожному конкретному випадку встановлені закономірності підбору художніх засобів та віршового розміру перекладачем і дослідником відповідно тексту оригіналу.

У власних перекладах Костюк О. відтворено максимально адекватно і точно образи та атмосферу віршів поетів-класиків, передана суть і мелодика оригіналу. Робота доводить, що український поетичний переклад має неабияку літературну цінність. Під час роботи Костюк Ольга зарекомендувала себе як вмілий і старанний дослідник. Вона вміє логічно мислити, узагальнити та творчо інтерпретувати отриманий матеріал. Дане дослідження виконане на високому науковому рівні, відповідає вимогам, що дозволяє рекомендувати його до захисту.


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    Вы не авторизованы! Комментарии могут оставлять только зарегистрированные и авторизованные пользователи!
    Гость | 26.11.2006 09:26
    Re: Особливості поетичного перекладу з англійської мови на українську на прикладі поезій американських та англійських поетів-класиків
    "IF" Kipling (translations in Ukrainian)


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    Что нужно указывать в примитках в форме замовлення
    Какой курс пересчета у.е.
    Я замовив більше ніж 24 год назад реферат. Відповіді немає.Чому?
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